ταβλι - wasPhilos - Backgammon Chios, medium, Kassette. Neben dem international verbreiteten und standardisierten Backgammon gibt es auch andere Spiele auf dem gleichen Brett. Jeder Spieler hat nur drei Steine, die zu Beginn auf den ersten drei Feldern, aus der Sicht des jeweiligen Spielers, aufgestellt werden. Hat der Gegner noch keinen Stein herausgewürfelt, so wird das Spiel doppelt bewertet. Philos - Backgammon Kefalonia, medium, Kassette. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Bei Turnieren ist die Verwendung von Würfelbechern zwingend vorgeschrieben. EUR 21,34 20 gebrauchte und neue Artikel. Nur noch 16 Stück auf Lager - jetzt bestellen.
To reduce the possibility of cheating, most good quality backgammon sets use precision dice and a dice cup. Online cheating has therefore become extremely difficult.
Paul Magriel was a key witness for the defence, contradicting Dr. Roger Nelson, the expert prosecution witness, by saying, "Game theory, however, really applies to games with imperfect knowledge, where something is concealed, such as poker.
Backgammon is not such a game. Everything is in front of you. The person who uses that information in the most effective manner will win.
After the closing arguments, Judge Stephen S. Walker concluded that backgammon is a game of skill, not a game of chance, and found the defendant, backgammon tournament director Ted Barr, not guilty of promoting gambling.
Enthusiasts have formed clubs for social play of backgammon. A backgammon chouette permits three or more players to participate in a single game, often for money.
One player competes against a team of all the other participants, and positions rotate after each game. Chouette play often permits the use of multiple doubling cubes.
Backgammon clubs may also organize tournaments. Large club tournaments sometimes draw competitors from other regions, with final matches viewed by hundreds of spectators.
Winners at major tournaments may receive prizes of tens of thousands of dollars. Starting in January , tournament directors began awarding GammonPoints,  a free points registry for tournament directors and players, with GammonPoint awards based on the number of players and strength of field.
The first world championship competition in backgammon was held in Las Vegas , Nevada in Tim Holland was declared the winner that year and at the tournament the following year.
For unknown reasons, there was no championship in , but in , Tim Holland again won the title. In , Lewis Deyong, who had promoted the Bahamas World Championship for the prior three years, suggested that the two events be combined.
By the 21st century, the largest international tournaments had established the basis of a tour for top professional players.
Major tournaments are held yearly worldwide. The event was recorded for television in Europe airing on Eurosport.
In , the WBA collaborated with the online backgammon provider Play65 for the season of the European Backgammon Tour and with "Betfair" in When backgammon is played for money , the most common arrangement is to assign a monetary value to each point, and to play to a certain score, or until either player chooses to stop.
The stakes are raised by gammons, backgammons, and use of the doubling cube. Backgammon is sometimes available in casinos. Before the commercialization of artificial neural network programs, proposition bets on specific positions were very common among backgammon players and gamblers.
Backgammon software has been developed not only to play and analyze games, but also to facilitate play between humans over the internet.
Dice rolls are provided by random or pseudorandom number generators. Real-time online play began with the First Internet Backgammon Server in July ,   but there are now a range of options;  many of which are commercial.
Backgammon has been studied considerably by computer scientists. Neural networks and other approaches have offered significant advances to software for gameplay and analysis.
The first strong computer opponent was BKG 9. Early versions of BKG played badly even against poor players, but Berliner noticed that its critical mistakes were always at transitional phases in the game.
He applied principles of fuzzy logic to improve its play between phases, and by July , BKG 9. It won the match, 7—1, becoming the first computer program to defeat a world champion in any board game.
Berliner stated that the victory was largely a matter of luck, as the computer received more favorable dice rolls.
In the late s, backgammon programmers found more success with an approach based on artificial neural networks.
Its neural network was trained using temporal difference learning applied to data generated from self-play. Tesauro proposed using rollout analysis to compare the performance of computer algorithms against human players.
The rollout score of the human or the computer is the difference of the average game results by following the selected move versus following the best move, then averaged for the entire set of taken moves.
Without them, these programs play no better than a human novice. For the bearoff phase, backgammon software usually relies on a database containing precomputed equities for all possible bearoff positions.
Computer-versus-computer competitions are also held at Computer Olympiad events. The history of backgammon can be traced back nearly 5, years to its origins in Mesopotamia modern-day Iraq.
Modern Iraqis continue to enjoy playing the game. It used tetrahedral dice. In the modern Middle East, backgammon is a common feature of coffeehouses.
Race board games involving dice have a long history in Iraq, including the Royal Game of Ur in Babylon. In the modern Arab Levant and Iraq it is called tawle which means table, and it is also called shesh besh shesh means 6 in Aramaic and Phoenician , but derives from Phoenician.
However, shesh also means 6 in Persian and 5 is likely to be closely related to "Penj" meaning 5. Shesh Besh is commonly referred to the situation when a player scores a 5 and 6 at the same time on dice.
The artifacts included two dice and 60 checkers, and the set is believed to be to years older than the Royal Game of Ur.
On the board found in Shahr-e Sukhteh the fields are fashioned by the coils of a snake. Touraj Daryaee —on the subject of the first written mention of early precursors of backgammon—writes:.
The use of dice for the game is another indication of its Indic origin, since dice and gambling were a favorite pastime in ancient India. According to the historical legend, the Indian king Dewisarm sends his minister Taxritos to Persia with the game of chess , and a letter challenging Sasanian King Khosrow I to solve the riddle or rationale for the game.
Khosrow asks for three days to decipher the game, but initially no-one in the court is able to make any progress. As a reciprocal challenge, Wuzurgmihr constructs the game of backgammon and delivers it to the Indian king who is unable to decipher the game.
In the 11th century Shahnameh , the Persian poet Ferdowsi credits Burzoe with the invention of the tables game nard in the 6th century.
He describes an encounter between Burzoe and a Raja visiting from India. The Raja introduces the game of chess , and Burzoe demonstrates nard , played with dice made from ivory and teak.
Murray details many versions of backgammon; modern Nard is noted there as being the same as backgammon and maybe dating back to — AD in the Babylonian Talmud,  although others believe the Talmud references the Greek race game Kubeia.
Backgammon or nardi Armenian: The word is derived from Persian word nard Persian: There are two games of nardi commonly played:. Set-up and rules the same as backgammon.
A game which starts with all fifteen checkers placed in one line-on point and on point. The two players move their checkers in opposing directions, from the point towards the 1-point, or home board.
In long nardi one checker by itself can block a point. There is no hitting in long nardi. The objective of the game is bearing all checkers off the board.
There is no doubling cube. As today, each player had 15 checkers and used cubical dice with sides numbered one to six. The only differences with modern backgammon were the use of an extra die three rather than two and the starting of all pieces off the board with them entering in the same way that pieces on the bar enter in modern backgammon.
Zeno, who was white, had a stack of seven checkers, three stacks of two checkers and two blots , checkers that stand alone on a point and are therefore in danger of being put outside the board by an incoming opponent checker.
Zeno threw the three dice with which the game was played and obtained 2, 5 and 6. As in backgammon, Zeno could not move to a space occupied by two opponent black pieces.
The white and black checkers were so distributed on the points that the only way to use all of the three results, as required by the game rules, was to break the three stacks of two checkers into blots, exposing them and ruining the game for Zeno.
In Roman times this game was also known as alea , and a likely apocryphal Latin story linked this name, and the game, to a Trojan soldier named Alea.
Race board games involving dice have existed for millennia in the Near East and eastern Mediterranean, including the game senet of Ancient Egypt. The ancient Egyptian game senet was excavated, along with illustrations, from Egyptian royal tombs dating to BC.
The usual Tavla rules are same as in the neighboring Arab countries and Greece, as established over a millennium ago,  but there are also many quite different variants.
Backgammon is popular among Greeks. It is a game in which Greeks usually tease their opponent and they create a lively atmosphere.
The game is called "Tavli", derived in Byzantine times from the Latin word "tabula". Set-up and rules the same as backgammon, except that backgammons count as gammons 2 points and there is no doubling cube.
A game where one checker can trap another checker on the same point. A game where one checker by itself can block a point.
Also known as Acey-deucey where all checkers are off the board, and you enter by rolling either doubles or acey-deucey. These games are played one after another, in matches of three, five, or seven points.
Players use the same pair of dice in turns. After the first game, the winner of the previous game starts first. In Japan ban-sugoroku is thought to have been introduced from China in the 6th century.
As a gambling game it was made illegal several times. By the 13th century, the board game Go , originally played only by the aristocracy, had become popular among the general public.
The jeux de tables Games of Tables , predecessors of modern backgammon, first appeared in France during the 11th century and became a favorite pastime of gamblers.
In , Louis IX issued a decree prohibiting his court officials and subjects from playing. In Spain , the Alfonso X manuscript Libro de los juegos , completed in , describes rules for a number of dice and table games in addition to its extensive discussion of chess.
Some surviving artworks are " Cardsharps " by Caravaggio the backgammon board is in the lower left and " The Triumph of Death " by Pieter Bruegel the Elder the backgammon board is in the lower right.
In the 16th century, Elizabethan laws and church regulations prohibited playing tables, but by the 18th century, backgammon was popular among the English clergy.
In English, the word "backgammon" is most likely derived from "back" and Middle English " gamen ", meaning "game" or "play".
The earliest use documented by the Oxford English Dictionary was in The most recent major development in backgammon was the addition of the doubling cube.
The popularity of backgammon surged in the mids, in part due to the charisma of Prince Alexis Obolensky who became known as "The Father of Modern Backgammon".
He also established the World Backgammon Club of Manhattan, devised a backgammon tournament system in , then organized the first major international backgammon tournament in March, , which attracted royalty, celebrities and the press.
Cigarette, liquor and car companies began to sponsor tournaments and Hugh Hefner held backgammon parties at the Playboy Mansion. Board and committee members include many of the top players, tournament directors and writers in the worldwide backgammon community.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the film, see Backgammon film. A backgammon set, consisting of a board, two sets of 15 checkers, two pairs of dice, a doubling cube, and dice cups.
This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. In particular, The picture is incorrect because it does not take into account that when rolling doubles, a given distance may be traveled using the rolled number 3 or 4 times.
November Learn how and when to remove this template message. List of World Backgammon champions. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. New Series 1 9: Gaming Guide - Gambling in Europe.
Backgammon for Winners Third ed. Morehead and Geoffrey Mott-Smith. Backgammon for Serious Players Second ed. Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on 13 September Archived from the original on Archived from the original on 13 March An exposure of the arts and miseries of gambling.
The Daily Telegraph Australia. Archived from the original on 7 September Retrieved 6 March Communications of the ACM.
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The board consists of 24 triangles with alternating colours — these are called points. The points are separated into four equal groups, known as Home and Outer boards.
Every player has 15 checkers in predefined locations on the board and tries to move all of them safely to his home board. The main objective of the game is to move all checkers you own to your own home board and then bear them off.
The first player do achieve that is declared a winner. Points, that have only one checker on them are called Blots.
The player that has checkers on the board must return them to play before playing his other checkers. It is possible to have no possible moves — in this case the turn is ended and the opponent rolls the dice.
By default, every game yields 1 point per win. If your opponent accepts, the yield is doubled, if he declines, the current doubling cube value is assigned to you.
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