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Towards the end of the season , the team was given use of the YZR-M1. In and the team used Dunlop tyres , but returned to Michelin in For , Ben Spies replaced Toseland.
Spies finished the season in sixth place while Edwards finished in eleventh place. In the new Moto2 category, Tech 3 rider Yuki Takahashi finished the season in twelfth place while Raffaele De Rosa finished 27th, aboard Honda-powered bikes using a Tech 3 chassis.
For , Crutchlow moved into the second year of his two-year deal, while Edwards announced that he was leaving for the Forward Racing team with Andrea Dovizioso having been confirmed as his replacement.
Bradley Smith signed a deal to ride for the team in MotoGP in and From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Archived from the original on Retrieved 10 November Retrieved 5 May Italian became the language used in the courts of every state in the Italian peninsula.
This discussion, known as questione della lingua i. Renaissance scholars divided into three main factions:. A fourth faction claimed that the best Italian was the one that the papal court adopted, which was a mixture of the Tuscan and Roman dialects.
The continual advancements in technology plays a crucial role in the diffusion of languages. After the invention of the printing press in the fifteen century, the number of printing presses in Italy grew rapidly and by the year reached a total of 56, the biggest number of printing presses in all of Europe.
This allowed to produce more pieces of literature at a lower cost and as the dominant language, Italian spread. An important event that helped the diffusion of Italian was the conquest and occupation of Italy by Napoleon in the early 19th century who was himself of Italian-Corsican descent.
This conquest propelled the unification of Italy some decades after and pushed the Italian language into a lingua franca used not only among clerks, nobility, and functionaries in the Italian courts but also by the bourgeoisie.
After unification, a huge number of civil servants and soldiers recruited from all over the country introduced many more words and idioms from their home languages ciao is derived from the Venetian word s-cia[v]o "slave" , panettone comes from the Lombard word panetton , etc.
Italian is a Romance language , and is therefore a descendant of Vulgar Latin the spoken form of non-classical Latin.
As in most Romance languages, stress is distinctive. In particular, among the Romance languages, Italian is the closest to Latin in terms of vocabulary.
One study analyzing the degree of differentiation of Romance languages in comparison to Latin comparing phonology , inflection , discourse , syntax , vocabulary , and intonation estimated that among the languages analyzed the distance between Italian and Latin is only higher than that between Sardinian and Latin.
Italian is the third most spoken language in Switzerland after German and French , and its use has modestly declined since the s. Due to heavy Italian influence during the Italian colonial period , Italian is still understood by some in former colonies.
Although over 17 million Americans are of Italian descent , only a little over one million people in the United States speak Italian at home.
Italian immigrants to South America have also brought a presence of the language to that continent. Italian is the second most spoken language in Argentina  after the official language of Spanish, with over 1 million mainly of the older generation speaking it at home, and Italian has also influenced the dialect of Spanish spoken in Argentina and Uruguay , mostly in phonology, known as Rioplatense Spanish.
Italian is widely taught in many schools around the world, but rarely as the first foreign language. Italian is the fourth   most frequently taught foreign language in the world.
For example, the free website and application Duolingo has 4. According to the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs , every year there are more than , foreign students who study the Italian language; they are distributed among the 90 Institutes of Italian Culture that are located around the world, in the Italian schools located abroad, or in the Italian lecturer sections belonging to foreign schools where Italian is taught as a language of culture.
From the late nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century, thousands of Italians settled in Argentina, Uruguay, southern Brazil, and Venezuela, where they formed a physical and cultural presence.
In some cases, colonies were established where variants of regional languages of Italy were used, and some continue to use this regional language.
Examples are Rio Grande do Sul , Brazil , where Talian is used, and the town of Chipilo near Puebla, Mexico ; each continues to use a derived form of Venetian dating back to the nineteenth century.
Rioplatense Spanish , and particularly the speech of the city of Buenos Aires, has intonation patterns that resemble those of Italian languages because Argentina has had a continuous large influx of Italian settlers since the second half of the nineteenth century: Starting in late medieval times in much of Europe and the Mediterranean, Latin was replaced as the primary commercial language by Italian language variants especially Tuscan and Venetian.
These variants were consolidated during the Renaissance with the strength of Italy and the rise of humanism and the arts.
During that period, Italy held artistic sway over the rest of Europe. It was the norm for all educated gentlemen to make the Grand Tour , visiting Italy to see its great historical monuments and works of art.
It thus became expected to learn at least some Italian. In England, while the classical languages Latin and Greek were the first to be learned, Italian became the second most common modern language after French, a position it held until the late eighteenth century when it tended to be replaced by German.
John Milton , for instance, wrote some of his early poetry in Italian. Within the Catholic church , Italian is known by a large part of the ecclesiastical hierarchy and is used in substitution for Latin in some official documents.
Italian loanwords continue to be used in most languages in matters of art and music especially classical music including opera , in the design and fashion industries, in some sports like football  and especially, in culinary terms.
In Italy, almost all the other languages spoken as the vernacular — other than standard Italian and some languages spoken among immigrant communities — are often imprecisely called " Italian dialects ",  even though they are quite different, with some belonging to different linguistic branches.
The only exceptions to this are twelve groups considered " historical language minorities ", which are officially recognized as distinct minority languages by the law.
On the other hand, Corsican a language spoken on the French island of Corsica is closely related to Tuscan , from which Standard Italian derives and evolved.
The differences in the evolution of Latin in the different regions of Italy can be attributed to the presence of three other types of languages: The most prevalent were substrata the language of the original inhabitants , as the Italian dialects were most likely simply Latin as spoken by native cultural groups.
Superstrata and adstrata were both less important. Foreign conquerors of Italy that dominated different regions at different times left behind little to no influence on the dialects.
Foreign cultures with which Italy engaged in peaceful relations with, such as trade, had no significant influence either.
Regional differences can be recognized by various factors: There is no definitive date when the various Italian variants of Latin—including varieties that contributed to modern Standard Italian—began to be distinct enough from Latin to be considered separate languages.
One criterion for determining that two language variants are to be considered separate languages rather than variants of a single language is that they have evolved so that they are no longer mutually intelligible ; this diagnostic is effective if mutual intelligibility is minimal or absent e.
Nevertheless, on the basis of accumulated differences in morphology, syntax, phonology, and to some extent lexicon, it is not difficult to identify that for the Romance varieties of Italy, the first extant written evidence of languages that can no longer be considered Latin comes from the ninth and tenth centuries C.
These written sources demonstrate certain vernacular characteristics and sometimes explicitly mention the use of the vernacular in Italy.
Full literary manifestations of the vernacular began to surface around the 13th century in the form of various religious texts and poetry.
Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the use of Standard Italian became increasingly widespread and was mirrored by a decline in the use of the dialects.
An increase in literacy was one of the main driving factors one can assume that only literates were capable of learning Standard Italian, whereas those who were illiterate had access only to their native dialect.
Tullio De Mauro , an Italian linguist, has asserted that in only 2. The ability to speak Italian did not necessarily mean it was in everyday use, and most people In addition, other factors such as mass emigration, industrialization, and urbanization, and internal migrations after World War II contributed to the proliferation of Standard Italian.
The Italians who emigrated during the Italian diaspora beginning in were often of the uneducated lower class, and thus the emigration had the effect of increasing the percentage of literates, who often knew and understood the importance of Standard Italian, back home in Italy.
A large percentage of those who had emigrated also eventually returned to Italy, often more educated than when they had left.
The Italian dialects have declined in the modern era, as Italy unified under Standard Italian and continues to do so aided by mass media, from newspapers to radio to television.
Compared with most other Romance languages, Italian phonology is conservative, preserving many words nearly unchanged from Vulgar Latin.
The conservativeness of Italian phonology is partly explained by its origin. Italian stems from a literary language that is derived from the 13th-century speech of the city of Florence in the region of Tuscany , and has changed little in the last years or so.
Furthermore, the Tuscan dialect is the most conservative of all Italian dialects , radically different from the Gallo-Italian languages less than miles to the north across the La Spezia—Rimini Line.
The following are some of the conservative phonological features of Italian, as compared with the common Western Romance languages French, Spanish, Portuguese , Galician , Catalan.
Some of these features are also present in Romanian. Compared with most other Romance languages, Italian has a large number of inconsistent outcomes, where the same underlying sound produces different results in different words, e.
The La Spezia—Rimini Line , the most important isogloss in the entire Romance-language area, passes only about 20 miles to the north of Florence.
Italian phonotactics do not usually permit verbs and polysyllabic nouns to end with consonants, excepting poetry and song, so foreign words may receive extra terminal vowel sounds.
The Italian alphabet is typically considered to consist of 21 letters. The letters j, k, w, x, y are traditionally excluded, though they appear in loanwords such as jeans , whisky , taxi , xenofobo , xilofono.
Italian has geminate, or double, consonants, which are distinguished by length and intensity. Geminate plosives and affricates are realized as lengthened closures.
Italian grammar is typical of the grammar of Romance languages in general. Cases exist for personal pronouns nominative , oblique , accusative , dative , but not for nouns.
There are two basic classes of nouns in Italian, referred to as genders , masculine and feminine. For a group composed of boys and girls, ragazzi is the plural, suggesting that -i is a general plural.
A third category of nouns is umarked for gender, ending in -e in the singular and -i in the plural: These nouns often, but not always, denote inanimates.
There are a number of nouns that have a masculine singular and a feminine plural, most commonly of the pattern m.
An instance of neuter gender also exists in pronouns of the third person singular. Nouns, adjectives, and articles inflect for gender and number singular and plural.
Like in English, common nouns are capitalized when occurring at the beginning of a sentence. Unlike English, nouns referring to languages e.
Italian , speakers of languages, or inhabitants of an area e. Italians are not capitalized. There are three types of adjectives: Descriptive adjectives are the most common, and their endings change to match the number and gender of the noun they modify.
Invariable adjectives are adjectives whose endings do not change. The form changing adjectives "buono good , bello beautiful , grande big , and santo saint " change in form when placed before different types of nouns.
Italian has three degrees for comparison of adjectives: The order of words in the phrase is relatively free compared to most European languages.
Word order often has a lesser grammatical function in Italian than in English. Adjectives are sometimes placed before their noun and sometimes after.
Subject nouns generally come before the verb. Italian is a null-subject language , so that nominative pronouns are usually absent, with subject indicated by verbal inflections e.
Noun objects normally come after the verb, as do pronoun objects after imperative verbs, infinitives and gerunds, but otherwise pronoun objects come before the verb.
There are both indefinite and definite articles in Italian. There are four indefinite articles, selected by the gender of the noun they modify and by the phonological structure of the word that immediately follows the article.
There are seven forms for definite articles, both singular and plural. There are numerous contractions of prepositions with subsequent articles.
There are numerous productive suffixes for diminutive , augmentative , pejorative, attenuating etc. There are 27 pronouns, grouped in clitic and tonic pronouns.
Personal pronouns are separated into three groups: Second person subject pronouns have both a polite and a familiar form. These two different types of address are very important in Italian social distinctions.
All object pronouns have two forms: Unstressed object pronouns are much more frequently used, and come before the verb Lo vedo.
Stressed object pronouns come after the verb, and are used when emphasis is required, for contrast, or to avoid ambiguity Vedo lui, ma non lei.
Aside from personal pronouns, Italian also has demonstrative, interrogative, possessive, and relative pronouns.
There are two types of demonstrative pronouns: Demonstratives in Italian are repeated before each noun, unlike in English. There are three regular sets of verbal conjugations , and various verbs are irregularly conjugated.
Corresponding to each of the simple conjugations, there is a compound conjugation involving a simple conjugation of "to be" or "to have" followed by a past participle.
This rule is not absolute, and some exceptions do exist. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Italiano disambiguation.Die günstigsten Preise für. Klicke auf einen Zeitpunkt, um diese Version zu laden. Diese Datei und die Informationen unter dem roten Trennstrich werden aus casino mage deck list zentralen Medienarchiv Wikimedia Commons eingebunden. Entfernung Es werden zuerst die Unternehmen angezeigt, die sich in unmittelbarer Nähe des Zentrums befinden und für die die Verfügbarkeit für Ihre Daten von unseren Partnern bestätigt wurde. Diese Datei enthält weitere Bvb letztes spiel beispielsweise Exif-Metadatendie in gorilla casino no deposit bonus Regel von der Digitalkamera oder dem verwendeten Scanner stammen. Wenn Sie fortfahren, stimmen Sie der Verwendung unserer Cookies zu. Please link images File: Alle Filter löschen Sortieren nach:. Durch nachträgliche Bearbeitung der Larry casino bonus können einige Details verändert worden sein. Steuern und Gebühren sind in den Angeboten nicht inbegriffen.